Chalmers Writing Guide


Why reference?

 All texts must accurately and consistently give a citation for all the information that appears within the document that is not the author's own work. There are at least four reasons why references should be included:

1.  Enhancing credibility: By placing your study into a larger context i.e. comparing it to others' findings, the credibility of your work is enhanced.

2. Avoiding plagiarism: Plagiarism is copying or using other people's work without referring to them. References inform the reader about the materials upon which the report is based. See the Chalmers academic honesty policy.

3. Informing interested readers: Readers who are interested in the field will have the opportunity to find other relevant literature on the subject to deepen their understanding of the field.

4. Returning to the source: Referencing makes it easier for you and your readers to return a source to double check a fact or to make sure that the contents of the source have been correctly interpreted.

How to reference?

There are many different referencing systems used throughout the world. The most commonly used at Chalmers are the APA system (author-date) and the IEEE system (a numerical system).

APA system: More recent studies (Jones, 2014; James, 2013) have argued that....

IEEE system: More recent studies [1,2] have argued that...

See the library for more information. Check with your supervisor which referencing system is recommended if you are unsure.

Be aware:

  • All references that are listed at the end of the text should be referred to in the text itself
  • Figures should also have a reference if they are taken from somewhere else
  • Keep a record of all the references you are using as you collect information. It will make referencing the finished text much easier.
  • For more information on how to reference / what to reference /using texts, go to Using information